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Group 1- Mayrenis, Luismairy, Noella, Sayra, Eboni

This case study explores the development of Maya, a bright and energetic 4-year-old girl. Maya lives with her parents and a younger brother in a suburban neighborhood. Through observations and parent interviews, we will examine Maya’s physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development within the context of her typical 4-year-old age range. Maya is a healthy and active child. She can run, jump, climb, and enjoys playing outside. Her fine motor skills are developing well, as evidenced by her ability to dress herself, hold utensils correctly, and draw simple shapes. Maya is curious and has a thirst for knowledge. She asks frequent questions about the world around her, demonstrating a growing understanding of cause-and-effect relationships. Her memory is improving, allowing her to recall events from her day and sing familiar songs. Maya is beginning to understand basic counting and sorting concepts. Maya is a social butterfly who enjoys playing with other children. She is learning to share and take turns, although frustration can still arise during play. She demonstrates empathy towards others and is eager to please. Maya experiences a range of emotions and is learning to express them verbally and nonverbally.

Group 2- Awa, Angel, Melissa, Yulenni, Johan
This case study examines the development of Liam, a vibrant 12-month-old boy. Liam lives with his parents in a comfortable apartment. Through observations and parental reports, we will explore Liam’s physical, cognitive, social, and emotional milestones within the context of his first year. Liam is gaining weight and height steadily, meeting expected growth charts. He can crawl confidently and is pulling himself up to stand using furniture for support. He is starting to experiment with taking a few independent steps. He picks up objects with a palmar grasp (using his whole hand) and is developing a pincer grasp (using thumb and forefinger) for smaller items. Liam is curious about his surroundings. He explores objects by mouthing them, shaking them, and banging them together. He recognizes familiar faces and voices, showing excitement at his parents’ arrival. He starts to understand simple commands like “no” and “bye-bye.” He delights in cause-and-effect relationships, dropping objects repeatedly to hear them bounce or clatter. Liam is developing a sense of stranger anxiety, becoming wary of unfamiliar people. He shows strong attachment to his primary caregivers, seeking comfort and reassurance from them. He enjoys social interaction with familiar faces, particularly his parents, and may express this through babbling, smiling, and reaching out. He experiences a range of emotions, such as joy, frustration, and sadness, and communicates them through facial expressions, vocalizations, and body language.

Group 3- Jiovanna, Raphael, Briana B., Leticia
This case study explores the world of Ava, a vivacious 20-month-old girl. Ava lives with her parents and an older sibling in a single-family home. Through observations and parental reports, we will examine Ava’s physical, cognitive, social, and emotional development within the context of her rapidly changing toddlerhood. Ava is a bundle of energy, constantly on the move. She walks confidently and is starting to run. She climbs furniture with ease and enjoys exploring stairs with supervision. Her fine motor skills are developing rapidly, allowing her to scribble with crayons, hold a spoon independently, and build simple towers with blocks. Ava’s curiosity is in full bloom. She enjoys exploring her surroundings, investigating objects of all shapes and sizes. She demonstrates an understanding of object permanence, searching for hidden toys. Her vocabulary is expanding rapidly, with simple two-word phrases becoming commonplace. She follows simple instructions and enjoys pointing out familiar objects in picture books. Ava is starting to show interest in playing alongside other children, although parallel play (playing near, but not necessarily with, others) is more common. She may share toys occasionally but can become possessive at times. She demonstrates strong attachments to her primary caregivers and may exhibit separation anxiety when left with unfamiliar adults. Ava experiences a wide range of emotions and is learning to express them verbally and nonverbally. Tantrums can erupt when frustrated or denied something she desires.

Group 4- Terra, Briana S, Cesar, Kadija
This case study explores the development of Ethan, a bright 4-year-old boy. Ethan lives with his parents and a younger sister in a quiet neighborhood. Through observations and parental reports, we will examine his strengths and challenges. Ethan is healthy and active. He enjoys playing outside and demonstrates good coordination for his age. Ethan shows a strong interest in specific topics, particularly dinosaurs and trains. He possesses a remarkable memory for details related to these interests and can identify objects and characters with impressive accuracy. Ethan prefers solitary play and struggles to initiate interaction with other children. He may not understand social cues like nonverbal communication or turn-taking during games. While Ethan possesses a vocabulary related to his preferred topics, his overall speech may be limited. He may engage in echolalia (repeating words or phrases) and struggle to use language for social interaction or expressing needs clearly. Ethan exhibits sensitivity to loud noises and certain textures. He may become overwhelmed in busy environments or avoid specific clothing due to sensory discomfort. Ethan engages in repetitive behaviors like lining up toys in specific patterns or fixating on spinning objects. These behaviors may provide comfort or a sense of control.



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